Tyler Hutchens – Independent Project

Tyler Hutchens – Independent Project

Class of 2017

Introduction to Topic

Total knee arthroscopy prevails as one of the most common surgeries in the entire branch of Orthopedics.  Knee replacements are essential to individuals with severe arthritis who suffer from pain or loss of joint function. While a knee replacement will help eliminate pain and improper gait, it’s not rare for the patients of a total knee arthroscopy to experience leg length discrepancy.  This is a condition in which the lengths of the lower extremity limbs have a noticeably unequal length.  A solution to this post-surgery outcome would be to limit the amount of human error originating from the surgeon.  Specifically, the source or error is the method of measuring the tibia and femur for prosthesis compatibility. The aim of this project is to construct an assistive intraoperative imaging system to provide more precise measurements and better visualization for the surgeon during a total knee arthroscopy.  My proposed system will consist of laser grid Kinect technology communicating with a computer to produce a 3-D model of the patient’s knee.  By creating this product, surgeons will be able to cut the tibia and femur bones to exactly fit the knee prosthesis and avoid giving the patient limb length discrepancy.

Project Description

My senior capstone project is a culmination of my experiences shadowing an orthopedic surgeon.  The innovation I have created reflects the highly-demanded needs of the patients I viewed with my mentor, Dr. Derek Papp.  This was generally one of two things: a total knee replacement or a Cotisone injection in the knee joint.  Since a vast majority of the patients visiting the orthopedic clinic were there for knee injuries and consequential pain, I immediately related to their situation.  Experiencing my own knee trauma drove me to empathetically connect with the patients and motivated me to tackle a shortcoming which failed to resolve their pain.  I decided to venture into the realm of surgical weaknesses in the field, as opposed to clinical treatments.  Upon talking one-on-one with my mentor in his private office, his mentioning of the imprecision of total knee replacements piqued my interest.  He proceeded to explain how the emerging technological presence in the operating room was beneficial to knee replacements, but sounded better on paper, and didn’t impress him when put to use.  Dr. Papp cited how the imaging techniques were imprecise and often led to malalignment of the prosthesis.  It was critical to the development of my innovation that we talked through his personal experiences with current technology as he drew a diagram of a typical surgery.  Being able to visually comprehend exactly what Dr. Papp was explaining was invaluable.  This allowed me to identify how I could greatly improve upon the existing intraoperative imaging techniques.

Experience Description

The most intriguing and educational shadowing experience of mine was held on the fourth floor of the Good Samaritan Hospital in the Orthopedic Medicine clinic.  This is where I initially met Dr. Papp two years ago to have surgery performed on my knee, and where I returned to explore the field of Sports Medicine Orthopedics.  Each time I was invited to shadow Dr. Papp in the clinic, we started in his office with a round of questions and in-depth discussions regarding recent patients of his that had unique cases.  The most frequent cases which prompted me to create my innovation were severe arthritis which were often treated with a total knee replacement.  By observing several patient examinations result in the scheduling of a surgery, I learned a notable amount about the knee arthroscopy procedure.  A typical appointment would consist of Dr. Papp evaluating bilateral knee pain in the patient.  He would ask the patient about history and symptoms of the pain, which likely included a sporting event or car accident.  As a result, patients seek treatment for persistent, sharp knee pain in both knees.  When talking about their symptoms, patients tell Dr. Papp if their knees crack, slip, or catch when bending down with and without weight.  Also, patients are prompted to mention activities they participate in which stimulate the pain.  After discussing these things, Dr. Papp performs a range of motion test on both knees and usually finds that the worse knee is prone to about 5-10° of hyperextension.  Next, a Lachman test is performed to evaluate the integrity of the patient’s ACL.  This test is a maneuver to detect deficiency of the anterior cruciate ligament.  By flexing the knee 20-30°, the tibia is displaced anteriorly relative to the femur.  A soft endpoint or greater than 4 mm of displacement is positive, meaning it’s abnormal.  It is important to utilize the Lachman test because it will reveal whether or not the patient is feeling pain from traditional wear-and-tear or if a ligament or bone tissue is damaged.  Also from my shadowing opportunities with Dr. Papp, I learned about how the need for a total knee replacement comes about, and what kind of patients are at the most risk.  During each patient evaluation, Dr. Papp reviews MRI scans on a monitor in the room and points out specific structures and landmarks which set off red flags for arthritis, ligament tears, bone tissue damage, etc.  The most common observation he made, and explained to patients, was the lack of cartilage cushioning the knee joint.  This was easily seen on the radiograph images by a light, empty space between the inferior head of the femur and the superior head of the tibia.  A healthy knee would have plenty of cartilage left in this space, which would appear as a darker gray color on the screen.  During each appointment, Dr. Papp is very thorough with his diagnosis to help the patient better understand what is happening in their body.  I thought that this was one of the more meaningful observations that I made in a experience at the clinic.  Sometimes it is easy to become disconnected with the patients after treating so many of them, and it is impressive that Dr. Papp cared about each one as it it were his first.  Dr. Papp shared with me that medical school blinds you to the fact that, as a physician, you are dealing with real humans with real emotions.  However, it is essential to business and the well-being of others that a doctor always takes into consideration the patient’s perspective and feelings.  For patients with Osteoarthritis, he elaborates on how it is generally associated with traditional wear-and-tear of the cartilage which comes with age.  The cartilage cushioning the knee joint wears away and causes the bones on the knee joint to rub on one another, thus causing extreme pain.  Not only does Dr. Papp spew out medical information, but he pleasantly answers any and all questions made by the patient, no matter how simplistic or redundant they may seem.  For Rheumatoid Arthritis, Dr. Papp usually uses his finger to draw on the radiographs to show inflammation and thickening of the synovial membrane which surrounds the knee joint.  This can cause damage to, or loss of, cartilage.  Finally, I have witnessed Dr. Papp diagnose patients with Post-traumatic Arthritis.  This refers to any kind of severe knee injury which results in damage to the articular knee cartilage over time, and I only saw this in patients who had been in car accidents.  Again, bone will begin grinding on bone, causing pain.  If Dr. Papp determined that the arthritis was so bad that the patient needed to receive and total knee replacement, he was usually able to schedule the operation sometime within the following two weeks.  The actual procedure involved Dr. Papp cutting and removing damaged cartilage and underlying bone from the tibia and femur.  Next, metal plates are anchored to replace the cartilage and bone which were cut off to resurface the knee.  The patella can be left alone, but Dr. Papp believes that it’s advantageous to resurface the underside with a plastic button.  After this, a tough, but smooth, plastic spacer is inserted between the metal plates to allow for smooth gliding of the knee components, similar to cartilage.  Approximately two weeks later when the patients return to the clinic for a post-op appointment, their stitches are taken out, and Dr. Papp writes them a script for physical therapy. Most of the patients we examined were between three and four months out of surgery, so they were walking fine and had almost all of their range of motion back.  Personally, this was the most fascinating part of my entire shadowing experience.  Seeing how a patient’s leg was opened up, and apart, and put back together was hard to fathom.  The speed at which all of the patients recovered was extraordinary because it took me almost a full year before I was ready to jump back into sports after my knee injury.  

Innovation Description

My innovation is an improvement to intraoperative imaging for total knee arthroscopy.  This is software which utilizes a camera and accessory tools to eliminate human error in knee replacement surgeries.  The purpose of this computing innovation is to provide patients with a more precise joint alignment, less pain, and improved life of the implanted prosthesis.  The equipment provides a surgeon with real-time graphics of the knee to better execute the meticulous procedure.  Since a surgeon will always contribute human error, computer assistance would be ideal to ensure near-perfect gait and zero limb length discrepancy. A solution which involves computer assistance, but not full robotic surgery, would be a 3-D topographic image of the knee in a real-time setting.  To be less invasive, one button-sized tracker will be secured close to the inferior head of the femur and another tracker close to the superior head of the tibia.  The trackers are anchored into the bone and are equipped with accelerometers to map discrete movements and torque imposed on the knee during surgery.  Next, a bone-sculpting instrument fitted with a tracker on each end will be used to conduct the intraoperative data acquisition.  Using Kinect technology positioned approximately three feet above the knee, precise depths will be calculated with a laser grid monitoring the sculptor location.  Utilizing the tracked instrument, the surgeon will proceed to trace the head of the tibia and femur after localizing the tibial and femoral tracker.  This will provide the assistive program with hundreds of reference points to construct a digital interpretation of the patient’s unique bone structure.  In real-time, the Kinect technology will analyze the exact location of each tracker relative to each other and translate this data into a 3-D topographic map of the knee.  Furthermore, the bone-sculptor will be fitted with an abrasive head of known length to begin grinding away at the bone.  The topographic map of the tibia and femur will be color-coded to display how much more bone the surgeon must grind away in order for the prosthesis to fit correctly.  This concept effectively addresses the problem of limb length discrepancy and perpetuated knee pain by making the procedure more precise.  By doing so, the patients visiting Dr. Papp will be more satisfied with their knee replacement(s) and will no longer need to receive Cortisone injections.  Additionally, patients will not need to return to the clinic as frequently because their prosthesis will last longer if it is fitted correctly, and will not need as many evaluation appointments.  In the creation of my innovation, this process attributed for approximately 20 hours of work.  Obviously I could not employ my innovation in a real operating room, but I taught myself how to configure my laptop to interpret and display input from and external source; it originally did not allow me to use this function.  Then, I had to locate the exact model of an adapter that would allow my laptop to communicate with the connect camera for video display.  Next, I had to research how to program a certain type of software on my computer to enable the color image and three-dimensional video to appear of my screen.  This part took a large portion of time because I had to read through online forums, call help-desks, and dive into settings deep within my computer.  These 20 hours also included the construction of my version of the bone-sculpting tool, as well as the model knee joint.  To create the mimic bone-sculpting drill, I used a dremmel tool with a circular, abrasive attachment on the end.  This acted as the instrument which would cut and/or shave precise pieces of the bone before inserting the high-density plastic prosthesis.  This tool functions well and is an accurate representation of how the actual product would work because it is the relative shape and size of a true bone-sculpting drill and it can be wielded using a single hand.  Additionally, the mimic knee joint was constructed out of Play Doh. This material was perfect for constructing a knee joint for demonstration purposes because it has good integrity to hold its shape, but it can be manipulated by the dremmel tool to appear as if the “bone” is being shaved away in preparation for a knee prosthesis.  Finally, I set up the Kinect camera using a tripod.  The tripod is positioned directly over the Play Doh knee joint, with its legs fully extended as to give the camera an optimum viewing angle.  I secured the Kinect facing down on the mount where a traditional camera would be locked in place.  This simulates the real-world application of my innovation because the depth camera would be mounted above the patient and aiming downward at the knee joint if it were used in an operation.   The Kinect contains three vital pieces that work together to detect a player’s motion and create their physical image on the screen.  These pieces include an RGB color VGA video camera, a depth sensor, and a multi-array microphone. The camera detects the red, green, and blue color components as well as body-type and facial features. It has a pixel resolution of 640×480 and a framerate of 30fps. This helps in facial recognition and body recognition by producing a detailed image in real-time. The depth sensor contains a monochrome CMOS sensor and infrared projector that help create the 3D imagery throughout the room. It also measures the distance of each point of the player’s body by transmitting invisible near-infrared light and measuring its “time of flight” after it reflects off the objects.  Programming inside of the kinect device converts the time of flight calculations into a depth field to depict where objects are in the room relative to the camera.  The microphone is actually an array of four microphones that can isolate the voices of the player from other background noises allowing players to use their voices as an added control feature.  This is known as the cocktail effect, and can be extremely beneficial when attempting to operate the device in high-volume environments.  These components come together to detect and track 48 different points on each player’s body and repeats 30 times every second.  In a Nutshell, an invisible light source first illuminates the target portion of the patient’s body.  Then, a sensor chip measures the distance that the light travels to each pixel within the chip.  Next, unique embedded imaging software uses a depth map to perceive and identify the patient’s joint in real time.  Finally, the data is converted into a three-dimensional topographic image of the joint on a computer screen.  Surgical burs are designed to excavate, perforate, reshape, and/or excise fragments of bone usually during orthopedic procedures. These burs typically consist of a shank made of steel or tungsten carbide with a well-differentiated working head (sometimes with bound diamond chips) in a variety of sizes and shapes.  As mentioned before my innovation will include equipment such as a bone-sculpting drill and button-sized accelerometers.  Dedicated bone burs are available for many different uses, including shaping bones for prosthetic procedures such as a total knee arthroscopy.  These specialized hand pieces are designed to provide precision and control when resecting soft tissue and/or hard bone.  When performing a total knee arthroscopy, an orthopedic surgeon will use the high speed drill to carve away large sections of bone, then shave the remaining bone to perfectly fit the prosthesis to the exact millimeter.  The Orthovision machine will utilize a bone sculpting tool, but will equip it with a small tracking device on the distal and proximal end to monitor its exact movement relative to the femur, tibia, and patella.  This data will be used in conjunction with the intraoperative imaging to create a 3-D rendering of the shape of the patient’s knee joint in real time.  Color-coded images will inform the surgeon how much more of the bone he/she must resect. The mentioned accelerometers are electromechanical devices that sense either static or dynamic forces of acceleration. Static forces include gravity, while dynamic forces can include vibrations and movement. Generally, accelerometers contain capacitive plates internally. Some of these are fixed, while others are attached to miniscule springs that move internally as acceleration forces act upon the sensor. As these plates move in relation to each other, the capacitance between them changes. From these changes in capacitance, the acceleration can be determined.  This applies to my innovation because each electronic tracker, one placed on the inferior head of the femur and another close to the superior head of the tibia, will be fitted with an accelerometer.  By doing so, the surgeon can evaluate the range of motion of the joint being operated on.  Once the prosthesis is in place, ligament strength and elasticity can be measured by forcing the leg in different directions and collecting data on how fast it naturally returns to a resting position. Furthermore, the accelerometers will serve as a safety precaution to monitor any abnormal stress put on the patient’s knee joint from unnatural positions and imposed torque.

Approximately 30 hours worth of work on my innovation is attributed to the creation on my product’s website.  The website I created is home to descriptions about my fictional company, the science/tools behind it, information about my internship, a demonstration of the working product, success stories, and contact information for my company.  This took me a tremendous amount of time because I had never created a website before.  Each page is filled with several pictures, and detailed descriptions of  the respective aspect of my innovation.  Many hours were spent trying, and failing, to format the website correctly, and I eventually had to change the theme and start over.  Ultimately, the website is user-friendly, attractive, and contains

+ Project Topic

Introduction to Topic

Total knee arthroscopy prevails as one of the most common surgeries in the entire branch of Orthopedics.  Knee replacements are essential to individuals with severe arthritis who suffer from pain or loss of joint function. While a knee replacement will help eliminate pain and improper gait, it’s not rare for the patients of a total knee arthroscopy to experience leg length discrepancy.  This is a condition in which the lengths of the lower extremity limbs have a noticeably unequal length.  A solution to this post-surgery outcome would be to limit the amount of human error originating from the surgeon.  Specifically, the source or error is the method of measuring the tibia and femur for prosthesis compatibility. The aim of this project is to construct an assistive intraoperative imaging system to provide more precise measurements and better visualization for the surgeon during a total knee arthroscopy.  My proposed system will consist of laser grid Kinect technology communicating with a computer to produce a 3-D model of the patient’s knee.  By creating this product, surgeons will be able to cut the tibia and femur bones to exactly fit the knee prosthesis and avoid giving the patient limb length discrepancy.

+ Project Overview

Project Description

My senior capstone project is a culmination of my experiences shadowing an orthopedic surgeon.  The innovation I have created reflects the highly-demanded needs of the patients I viewed with my mentor, Dr. Derek Papp.  This was generally one of two things: a total knee replacement or a Cotisone injection in the knee joint.  Since a vast majority of the patients visiting the orthopedic clinic were there for knee injuries and consequential pain, I immediately related to their situation.  Experiencing my own knee trauma drove me to empathetically connect with the patients and motivated me to tackle a shortcoming which failed to resolve their pain.  I decided to venture into the realm of surgical weaknesses in the field, as opposed to clinical treatments.  Upon talking one-on-one with my mentor in his private office, his mentioning of the imprecision of total knee replacements piqued my interest.  He proceeded to explain how the emerging technological presence in the operating room was beneficial to knee replacements, but sounded better on paper, and didn’t impress him when put to use.  Dr. Papp cited how the imaging techniques were imprecise and often led to malalignment of the prosthesis.  It was critical to the development of my innovation that we talked through his personal experiences with current technology as he drew a diagram of a typical surgery.  Being able to visually comprehend exactly what Dr. Papp was explaining was invaluable.  This allowed me to identify how I could greatly improve upon the existing intraoperative imaging techniques.

+ Experience

Experience Description

The most intriguing and educational shadowing experience of mine was held on the fourth floor of the Good Samaritan Hospital in the Orthopedic Medicine clinic.  This is where I initially met Dr. Papp two years ago to have surgery performed on my knee, and where I returned to explore the field of Sports Medicine Orthopedics.  Each time I was invited to shadow Dr. Papp in the clinic, we started in his office with a round of questions and in-depth discussions regarding recent patients of his that had unique cases.  The most frequent cases which prompted me to create my innovation were severe arthritis which were often treated with a total knee replacement.  By observing several patient examinations result in the scheduling of a surgery, I learned a notable amount about the knee arthroscopy procedure.  A typical appointment would consist of Dr. Papp evaluating bilateral knee pain in the patient.  He would ask the patient about history and symptoms of the pain, which likely included a sporting event or car accident.  As a result, patients seek treatment for persistent, sharp knee pain in both knees.  When talking about their symptoms, patients tell Dr. Papp if their knees crack, slip, or catch when bending down with and without weight.  Also, patients are prompted to mention activities they participate in which stimulate the pain.  After discussing these things, Dr. Papp performs a range of motion test on both knees and usually finds that the worse knee is prone to about 5-10° of hyperextension.  Next, a Lachman test is performed to evaluate the integrity of the patient’s ACL.  This test is a maneuver to detect deficiency of the anterior cruciate ligament.  By flexing the knee 20-30°, the tibia is displaced anteriorly relative to the femur.  A soft endpoint or greater than 4 mm of displacement is positive, meaning it’s abnormal.  It is important to utilize the Lachman test because it will reveal whether or not the patient is feeling pain from traditional wear-and-tear or if a ligament or bone tissue is damaged.  Also from my shadowing opportunities with Dr. Papp, I learned about how the need for a total knee replacement comes about, and what kind of patients are at the most risk.  During each patient evaluation, Dr. Papp reviews MRI scans on a monitor in the room and points out specific structures and landmarks which set off red flags for arthritis, ligament tears, bone tissue damage, etc.  The most common observation he made, and explained to patients, was the lack of cartilage cushioning the knee joint.  This was easily seen on the radiograph images by a light, empty space between the inferior head of the femur and the superior head of the tibia.  A healthy knee would have plenty of cartilage left in this space, which would appear as a darker gray color on the screen.  During each appointment, Dr. Papp is very thorough with his diagnosis to help the patient better understand what is happening in their body.  I thought that this was one of the more meaningful observations that I made in a experience at the clinic.  Sometimes it is easy to become disconnected with the patients after treating so many of them, and it is impressive that Dr. Papp cared about each one as it it were his first.  Dr. Papp shared with me that medical school blinds you to the fact that, as a physician, you are dealing with real humans with real emotions.  However, it is essential to business and the well-being of others that a doctor always takes into consideration the patient’s perspective and feelings.  For patients with Osteoarthritis, he elaborates on how it is generally associated with traditional wear-and-tear of the cartilage which comes with age.  The cartilage cushioning the knee joint wears away and causes the bones on the knee joint to rub on one another, thus causing extreme pain.  Not only does Dr. Papp spew out medical information, but he pleasantly answers any and all questions made by the patient, no matter how simplistic or redundant they may seem.  For Rheumatoid Arthritis, Dr. Papp usually uses his finger to draw on the radiographs to show inflammation and thickening of the synovial membrane which surrounds the knee joint.  This can cause damage to, or loss of, cartilage.  Finally, I have witnessed Dr. Papp diagnose patients with Post-traumatic Arthritis.  This refers to any kind of severe knee injury which results in damage to the articular knee cartilage over time, and I only saw this in patients who had been in car accidents.  Again, bone will begin grinding on bone, causing pain.  If Dr. Papp determined that the arthritis was so bad that the patient needed to receive and total knee replacement, he was usually able to schedule the operation sometime within the following two weeks.  The actual procedure involved Dr. Papp cutting and removing damaged cartilage and underlying bone from the tibia and femur.  Next, metal plates are anchored to replace the cartilage and bone which were cut off to resurface the knee.  The patella can be left alone, but Dr. Papp believes that it’s advantageous to resurface the underside with a plastic button.  After this, a tough, but smooth, plastic spacer is inserted between the metal plates to allow for smooth gliding of the knee components, similar to cartilage.  Approximately two weeks later when the patients return to the clinic for a post-op appointment, their stitches are taken out, and Dr. Papp writes them a script for physical therapy. Most of the patients we examined were between three and four months out of surgery, so they were walking fine and had almost all of their range of motion back.  Personally, this was the most fascinating part of my entire shadowing experience.  Seeing how a patient’s leg was opened up, and apart, and put back together was hard to fathom.  The speed at which all of the patients recovered was extraordinary because it took me almost a full year before I was ready to jump back into sports after my knee injury.  

+ Innovation

Innovation Description

My innovation is an improvement to intraoperative imaging for total knee arthroscopy.  This is software which utilizes a camera and accessory tools to eliminate human error in knee replacement surgeries.  The purpose of this computing innovation is to provide patients with a more precise joint alignment, less pain, and improved life of the implanted prosthesis.  The equipment provides a surgeon with real-time graphics of the knee to better execute the meticulous procedure.  Since a surgeon will always contribute human error, computer assistance would be ideal to ensure near-perfect gait and zero limb length discrepancy. A solution which involves computer assistance, but not full robotic surgery, would be a 3-D topographic image of the knee in a real-time setting.  To be less invasive, one button-sized tracker will be secured close to the inferior head of the femur and another tracker close to the superior head of the tibia.  The trackers are anchored into the bone and are equipped with accelerometers to map discrete movements and torque imposed on the knee during surgery.  Next, a bone-sculpting instrument fitted with a tracker on each end will be used to conduct the intraoperative data acquisition.  Using Kinect technology positioned approximately three feet above the knee, precise depths will be calculated with a laser grid monitoring the sculptor location.  Utilizing the tracked instrument, the surgeon will proceed to trace the head of the tibia and femur after localizing the tibial and femoral tracker.  This will provide the assistive program with hundreds of reference points to construct a digital interpretation of the patient’s unique bone structure.  In real-time, the Kinect technology will analyze the exact location of each tracker relative to each other and translate this data into a 3-D topographic map of the knee.  Furthermore, the bone-sculptor will be fitted with an abrasive head of known length to begin grinding away at the bone.  The topographic map of the tibia and femur will be color-coded to display how much more bone the surgeon must grind away in order for the prosthesis to fit correctly.  This concept effectively addresses the problem of limb length discrepancy and perpetuated knee pain by making the procedure more precise.  By doing so, the patients visiting Dr. Papp will be more satisfied with their knee replacement(s) and will no longer need to receive Cortisone injections.  Additionally, patients will not need to return to the clinic as frequently because their prosthesis will last longer if it is fitted correctly, and will not need as many evaluation appointments.  In the creation of my innovation, this process attributed for approximately 20 hours of work.  Obviously I could not employ my innovation in a real operating room, but I taught myself how to configure my laptop to interpret and display input from and external source; it originally did not allow me to use this function.  Then, I had to locate the exact model of an adapter that would allow my laptop to communicate with the connect camera for video display.  Next, I had to research how to program a certain type of software on my computer to enable the color image and three-dimensional video to appear of my screen.  This part took a large portion of time because I had to read through online forums, call help-desks, and dive into settings deep within my computer.  These 20 hours also included the construction of my version of the bone-sculpting tool, as well as the model knee joint.  To create the mimic bone-sculpting drill, I used a dremmel tool with a circular, abrasive attachment on the end.  This acted as the instrument which would cut and/or shave precise pieces of the bone before inserting the high-density plastic prosthesis.  This tool functions well and is an accurate representation of how the actual product would work because it is the relative shape and size of a true bone-sculpting drill and it can be wielded using a single hand.  Additionally, the mimic knee joint was constructed out of Play Doh. This material was perfect for constructing a knee joint for demonstration purposes because it has good integrity to hold its shape, but it can be manipulated by the dremmel tool to appear as if the “bone” is being shaved away in preparation for a knee prosthesis.  Finally, I set up the Kinect camera using a tripod.  The tripod is positioned directly over the Play Doh knee joint, with its legs fully extended as to give the camera an optimum viewing angle.  I secured the Kinect facing down on the mount where a traditional camera would be locked in place.  This simulates the real-world application of my innovation because the depth camera would be mounted above the patient and aiming downward at the knee joint if it were used in an operation.   The Kinect contains three vital pieces that work together to detect a player’s motion and create their physical image on the screen.  These pieces include an RGB color VGA video camera, a depth sensor, and a multi-array microphone. The camera detects the red, green, and blue color components as well as body-type and facial features. It has a pixel resolution of 640×480 and a framerate of 30fps. This helps in facial recognition and body recognition by producing a detailed image in real-time. The depth sensor contains a monochrome CMOS sensor and infrared projector that help create the 3D imagery throughout the room. It also measures the distance of each point of the player’s body by transmitting invisible near-infrared light and measuring its “time of flight” after it reflects off the objects.  Programming inside of the kinect device converts the time of flight calculations into a depth field to depict where objects are in the room relative to the camera.  The microphone is actually an array of four microphones that can isolate the voices of the player from other background noises allowing players to use their voices as an added control feature.  This is known as the cocktail effect, and can be extremely beneficial when attempting to operate the device in high-volume environments.  These components come together to detect and track 48 different points on each player’s body and repeats 30 times every second.  In a Nutshell, an invisible light source first illuminates the target portion of the patient’s body.  Then, a sensor chip measures the distance that the light travels to each pixel within the chip.  Next, unique embedded imaging software uses a depth map to perceive and identify the patient’s joint in real time.  Finally, the data is converted into a three-dimensional topographic image of the joint on a computer screen.  Surgical burs are designed to excavate, perforate, reshape, and/or excise fragments of bone usually during orthopedic procedures. These burs typically consist of a shank made of steel or tungsten carbide with a well-differentiated working head (sometimes with bound diamond chips) in a variety of sizes and shapes.  As mentioned before my innovation will include equipment such as a bone-sculpting drill and button-sized accelerometers.  Dedicated bone burs are available for many different uses, including shaping bones for prosthetic procedures such as a total knee arthroscopy.  These specialized hand pieces are designed to provide precision and control when resecting soft tissue and/or hard bone.  When performing a total knee arthroscopy, an orthopedic surgeon will use the high speed drill to carve away large sections of bone, then shave the remaining bone to perfectly fit the prosthesis to the exact millimeter.  The Orthovision machine will utilize a bone sculpting tool, but will equip it with a small tracking device on the distal and proximal end to monitor its exact movement relative to the femur, tibia, and patella.  This data will be used in conjunction with the intraoperative imaging to create a 3-D rendering of the shape of the patient’s knee joint in real time.  Color-coded images will inform the surgeon how much more of the bone he/she must resect. The mentioned accelerometers are electromechanical devices that sense either static or dynamic forces of acceleration. Static forces include gravity, while dynamic forces can include vibrations and movement. Generally, accelerometers contain capacitive plates internally. Some of these are fixed, while others are attached to miniscule springs that move internally as acceleration forces act upon the sensor. As these plates move in relation to each other, the capacitance between them changes. From these changes in capacitance, the acceleration can be determined.  This applies to my innovation because each electronic tracker, one placed on the inferior head of the femur and another close to the superior head of the tibia, will be fitted with an accelerometer.  By doing so, the surgeon can evaluate the range of motion of the joint being operated on.  Once the prosthesis is in place, ligament strength and elasticity can be measured by forcing the leg in different directions and collecting data on how fast it naturally returns to a resting position. Furthermore, the accelerometers will serve as a safety precaution to monitor any abnormal stress put on the patient’s knee joint from unnatural positions and imposed torque.

Approximately 30 hours worth of work on my innovation is attributed to the creation on my product’s website.  The website I created is home to descriptions about my fictional company, the science/tools behind it, information about my internship, a demonstration of the working product, success stories, and contact information for my company.  This took me a tremendous amount of time because I had never created a website before.  Each page is filled with several pictures, and detailed descriptions of  the respective aspect of my innovation.  Many hours were spent trying, and failing, to format the website correctly, and I eventually had to change the theme and start over.  Ultimately, the website is user-friendly, attractive, and contains

By | 2017-05-15T15:45:09+00:00 May 15th, 2017|Biomed Capstone Project 2017|0 Comments

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